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                      七夕節的習俗

                      時間:2016-06-27    閱讀:175 次   


                        七夕節的習俗一:穿針乞巧
                        
                        這是最早的乞巧方式,始于漢,流于后世。《西京雜記》說:“漢彩女常以七月七日穿七孔針于開襟樓,人具習之。”南朝梁宗謀《荊楚歲時記》說:“七月七日,是夕人家婦女結彩樓穿七孔外,或以金銀愉石為針。”《輿地志》說:“齊武帝起層城觀,7月7日,宮人多登之穿針。世謂之穿針樓。”五代王仁裕《開元天寶遺事》說:“七夕,宮中以錦結成樓殿,高百尺,上可以勝數十人,陳以瓜果酒炙,設坐具,以祀牛女二星,妃嬪各以九孔針五色線向月穿之,過者為得巧之侯。動清商之曲,宴樂達旦。土民之家皆效之。”元陶宗儀《元氏掖庭錄》說:“九引臺,七夕乞巧之所。至夕,宮女登臺以五彩絲穿九尾針,先完者為得巧,遲完者謂之輸巧,各出資以贈得巧者焉。”
                        
                        七夕節的習俗二:喜蛛應巧
                        

                        這也是較早的一種乞巧方式,其俗稍晚于穿針乞巧,大致起于南北朝之時。南朝的梁宗懔《荊楚歲時記》說;“是夕,陳瓜果于庭中以乞巧。有喜子網于瓜上則以為符應。”
                        
                        五代王仁裕《開元天寶遺事》說:“七月七日,各捉蜘蛛于小盒中,至曉開;視蛛網稀密以為得巧之侯。密者言巧多,稀者言巧少。民間亦效之”宋朝孟元老《東京夢華錄》說,七月七夕“以小蜘蛛安合子內,次日看之,若網圓正謂之得巧。”宋周密《乾淳歲時記》說;“以小蜘蛛貯合內,以候結網之疏密為得巧之多久”明田汝成《熙朝樂事》說,七夕節“以小盒盛蜘蛛,次早觀其結網疏密以為得巧多寡。”由此可見,歷代驗巧之法不同,南北朝視網之有無、唐視網之稀密,宋視網之圓正,后世多遵唐俗。(中國散文網 www.onnd5.com)
                        
                        七夕節的習俗三:投針驗巧
                        
                        這是七夕穿針乞巧風俗的變體,源于穿針,又不同于穿針,是明清兩代的盛行的七夕節俗。明劉侗、于奕正的《帝京景物略》說:“七月七日之午丟巧針。婦女曝盎水日中,頃之,水膜生面,繡針投之則浮,看水底針影。有成云物花頭鳥獸影者,有成鞋及剪刀水茄影者,謂乞得巧;其影粗如錘、細如絲、直如軸蠟,此拙征矣。”《直隸志書》也說,良鄉縣(今北京西南)“七月七日,婦女乞巧,投針于水,借日影以驗工拙,至夜仍乞巧于織女”請于敏中《日下舊聞考》引《宛署雜記》說:“燕都女子七月七日以碗水暴日下,各自投小針浮之水面,徐視水底日影。或散如花,動如云,細如線,粗租如錐,因以卜女之巧。”
                        
                        七夕節的習俗四:種生求子
                        
                        舊時習俗,在七夕前幾天,先在小木板上敷一層土,播下粟米的種子,讓它生出綠油油的嫩苗,再擺一些小茅屋、花木在上面,做成田舍人家小村落的模樣,稱為“殼板”,或將綠豆、小豆、小麥等浸于磁碗中,等它長出敷寸的芽,再以紅、藍絲繩扎成一束,稱為“種生”,又稱為“五生盆”或“生花盆”。南方各地也稱為“泡巧”,將長出的豆芽稱為巧芽,甚至以巧芽取代針,拋在水面乞巧。還用蠟塑各種形象,如牛郎、織女故事中的人物,或禿鷹、鴛鴦、等動物之形,放在水上浮游,稱之為“水上浮”。又有蠟制的嬰兒玩偶,讓婦女買回家浮于水土,以為宜子之祥,稱為“化生”。
                        
                        七夕節的習俗五:為牛慶生
                        
                        兒童會在七夕之日采摘野花掛在牛角上,又叫“賀牛生日”。因為傳說西王母用天河把牛郎織女分開后,老牛為了讓牛郎能夠跨越天河見到織女,就讓牛郎把它的皮刨下來,駕著它的牛皮去見織女。人們為了紀念老牛的犧牲精神,便有了“為牛慶生”的習俗。
                        
                        七夕節的習俗六:曬書曬衣
                        
                        據載,司馬懿當年因位高權重,頗受曹操的猜忌,有鑒于當時政治的黑暗,為求自保,他邊裝瘋病躲在家里。魏武帝仍然不大放心,就派了一個親信令史暗中探查真相。時值七月七日,裝瘋的司馬懿也在家中曬書。令史回去稟報魏武帝,魏武帝馬上下令要司馬懿回朝任職,否則即可收押。司馬懿只有乖乖的遵命回朝。
                        
                        還有有一種人,在亂世中,以放浪形骸來表達中的郁悶。他們藐視禮法,反對時俗。劉義慶的《世說新語》卷二十五說,七月七日人人都會曬書,只有郝隆跑到太陽底下去躺著,人家問他為什么,他回答:“我曬書”。這一方面是蔑視曬書的習俗,另一方面也是夸耀自己腹中的才學。曬肚皮也就是曬書。漢代曬衣的風俗在魏晉時為豪門富室制造了夸耀財富的機會。
                        
                        而名列“竹林七賢”的阮咸就瞧不起這種作風。七月七日,當他的鄰居曬衣時,只見架上全是陵羅綢緞,光彩奪目。而阮咸不慌不忙的用竹竿挑起一件破舊的衣服,有人問他在干什么,他說:“未能免俗,聊復爾耳!”由這幾則小故事看來,就知道當時七夕曬書、曬衣的風俗有多盛了。
                        
                        七夕節的習俗七:供奉“磨喝樂”
                        
                        磨喝樂是舊時民間七夕節的兒童玩物,即小泥偶,其形象多為傳荷葉半臂衣裙,手持荷葉。每年七月七日,在開封的“潘樓街東宋門外瓦子、州西梁門外瓦子、北門外、南朱雀門外街及馬行街內,皆賣磨喝樂,乃小塑土偶耳”。其實在宋朝稍晚以后的磨喝樂,已不再是小土偶了,相反的,越作越精致。磨喝樂的大小、姿態不一,最大的高至三尺,與真的小孩于相上下。制作的材料則有以象牙雕鏤或用龍延佛手香雕成的,磨喝樂的裝扮,更是極盡精巧之能事,有以彩繪木雕為欄座,或用紅砂碧籠當罩子,手中所持的玩具也多以金玉寶石來裝飾,一對磨喝樂的造價往往高達數千錢。
                        
                        七夕節的習俗八:拜織女
                        
                        “拜織女”純是少女、少婦們的事。她們大都是預先和自己朋友或鄰里們約好五六人,多至十來人,聯合舉辦。舉行的儀式,是于月光下擺一張桌子,桌子上置茶、酒、水果、五子(桂圓、紅棗、榛子、花生,瓜子)等祭品;又有鮮花幾朵,束紅紙,插瓶子里,花前置一個小香爐。那么,約好參加拜織女的少婦、少女們,齋戒一天,沐浴停當,準時都到主辦的家里來,于案前焚香禮拜后,大家一起圍坐在桌前,一面吃花生,瓜子,一面朝著織女星座,默念自己的心事。如少女們希望長得漂亮或嫁個如意郎、少婦們希望早生貴子等,都可以向織女星默禱。玩到半夜始散。
                        
                        七夕節的習俗九:拜魁星
                        
                        民間傳七月七日是魁星的生日。魁星文事,想求取功名的讀書人特別崇敬魁星,所以一定在七夕這天祭拜,祈求他保佑自己考運亨通。魁星爺就是魁斗星,廿八宿中的奎星,為北斗七星的第一顆星,也魁星或魁首。古代士子中狀元時稱“大魁天下士”或“一舉奪魁”,都是因為魁星主掌考運的緣故。
                        
                        七夕節的習俗十:吃巧果
                        
                        七夕的應節食品,以巧果最為出名。巧果又名“乞巧果子”,款式極多。主要的材料巧果是油面糖蜜。《東京夢華錄》中之為“笑厭兒”、“果食花樣”,圖樣則有捺香、方勝等。宋朝時,市街上已有七夕巧果出售。
                        
                        若購買一斤巧果,其中還會有一對身披戰甲,如門神的人偶,號稱“果食將軍”。七夕巧果的做法是:先將白糖放在鍋中熔為糖漿,然后和入面粉、芝麻,拌勻后攤在案上捍薄,晾涼后用刀切為長方塊,罪尤折為梭形面巧胚,入油炸至金黃即成。手巧的女子,還會捏塑出各種與七夕傳說有關的花樣。此外,乞巧時用的瓜果也可多種變化。或將瓜果雕成奇花異鳥,或在瓜皮表面浮雕(門票)圖案,稱為“花瓜”。
                        
                        七夕節的習俗十一:七姐誕
                        
                        廣州舊時過七巧節是非常熱鬧的。宋人劉克莊曾有詩詠道:“瓜果跽拳祝,喉羅樸賣聲。粵人重巧夕,燈光到天明。”人們在節日到來之前,姑娘們就預先備好各種奇巧的玩品,用通草、色紙、芝麻、米粒等,制成各種花果、仕女、器物、宮室模型等物。將谷種和綠豆放入小盒里浸,使之發芽,待芽長到二寸多長時,用來拜神,稱為“拜仙禾”和“拜神菜”。七夕晚(廣州人多從初六晚開始至初七晚,一連兩晚),姑娘們穿上新衣服,戴上新首飾,連指甲也涂上了紅色,然后把早已準備好的各式物品,如古董珍玩、鮮花、時果以及脂粉等擺放在廳堂的八仙臺上,還要有一盞油燈放置在“仙禾”或“仙菜”中間。此時,有錢人家的廳堂布置得錦屏繡椅、富麗堂皇,一般人家盡量把廳堂擺設井然。一切都安排停當以后,姑娘們便焚香點燭,對星空跪拜,稱為“迎仙”。自三更至五更,要連拜七次。此時,除了邀請親戚朋友前來作客以外,還要請鄰里中相識與不相識的姑娘們一起拜神,觀嘗巧藝與玩具,高高興興,熱熱鬧鬧,如巧藝與玩具受到越多人的稱贊,主家姑娘就越高興,越感到榮耀。廣州的姑娘們說,像這樣能在眾人面前展示手藝,一生是投有多少回的。拜仙之后,姑娘們手執彩線對著燈影將線穿過針孔(古稱金針度人),如一口氣能穿過七枚針孔者被稱為巧手(得巧),穿不到七孔
                        
                        七夕節的習俗十二:針者則“輸巧”
                        
                        正如唐代詩人所描繪:“向月穿針易,臨風整線難。不知誰得巧,明旦試看尋。”再后便焚燒紙制的圓盒(梳妝盒),盒里裝有紙制的衣服、鞋、脂粉、梳妝鏡、梳子等,每樣一式七份。祭拜儀式結束后,八仙臺上的擺設保持不動,留待翌日(初七)供姑娘們互相串訪時參觀、評議。據明清和民國時期的一些書籍所載,廣州姑娘于七夕中展示出來的巧藝,有一粒谷粒大小的繡花鞋、指甲般大小的各式扇子,有玲瓏輕飄的小羅帳,還有特制的蓮花、茉莉、玫瑰、夜合花等,花盆只有灑杯大小,盆內描有兩朵花,一真一假,令人難以區別。到了初七晚,繼續如昨晚一樣祀神,稱為“拜牛郎”,一般由男童主祭。七夕過后,姑娘們所制作的工藝品、玩具等
                        
                        七夕節的習俗十三:互相贈送,以示友情
                        
                        廣州七夕拜仙,已婚女子一般不能參加,但新婚后的新娘在過第一個七夕時,要舉行一次“辭仙”儀式。即在初六晚上祀神時,除了牲醴、紅蛋、酸姜等(取兆得子)以外,還要加上雪梨或沙梨,表示與姑娘節離別之意。
                        
                        據《廣州市志》卷十七所載,初七日,舊俗還有女子泛舟游石門(門票)沉香浦的活動。游艇用素馨花、茉莉花裝飾,稱為花艇。她們信此日為“仙女淋浴日”。石門浦水質清洌,朝夕日出日落時返照兩山,有時會像海市蜃樓(門票)一樣在天空出現一些景幻。泛舟者坦希望能有運氣看到奇最的出現,故姑娘們七夕游石門沉香浦成為一項重要內容,很是熱鬧,也成了一個節日的習俗。
                        
                        七夕節的習俗十四:染指甲
                        
                        染指甲系流傳在中國西南一帶的七夕習俗,四川省諸多縣志以及貴州、廣東兩地,也有此風。許多地區的年輕姑娘,喜歡在節日時用樹的液漿兌水洗頭發,傳說不僅可以年青美麗,而且對未婚的女子,還可以盡快找到如意郎君。用花草染指甲也是大多數女子與兒童們,在節日娛樂中的一種愛好,也與生育信仰有密切的關系。
                        
                        七夕節的習俗十五:婦女洗發
                        
                        婦女七夕洗發,也是特別的習俗。在湖南、江浙一帶都有此記載。例如湖南湘潭地區《攸縣志》:“七月七日,婦女采柏葉、桃枝,煎湯沐發。”而散文名家琦君(浙江籍)的《髻》也提到其母與叔婆等女眷,都在七夕沐發。這項習俗,大約和七夕“圣水”的信仰有關。人們認為,七夕這天取泉水、河水,就如同取銀河水一樣,具有潔凈的神圣力量。有的地方直接叫它“天孫(即織女)圣水”。因此女性在這天沐發,也就有了特殊意義,代表用銀河里的圣水凈發,必可獲得織女神的護佑。
                        
                        還流行用臉盆接露水的習俗。傳說七夕節時的露水是牛郎織女相會時的眼淚,如抹在眼上和手上,可使人眼明手快。
                        
                        七夕節的習俗十六:結扎巧姑
                        
                        陜西黃土高原地區,在七夕節的夜晚也有舉行各種乞巧活動的風俗,婦女們往往要結扎穿花衣的草人,謂之巧姑,不但要供瓜果,還栽種豆苗、青蔥,在七夕之夜各家女子都手端一碗清水,剪豆苗、青蔥,放入水中,用看月下投物之影來占卜巧拙之命,還穿針走線,競爭高低。同時還舉行剪窗花比巧手的活動。
                        
                        七夕節的習俗十七:拜“七娘媽”
                       
                       
                        閩南和臺灣的七夕節又是“七娘媽”的誕辰日。民間十分盛行崇拜七娘媽這一被奉為保護孩子平安和健康的偶像。據閩南籍臺灣學者林再復的《閩南人》一書考證,閩南人過去越峽跨洋到臺灣或異國他邦經商、謀生,大都多年未能歸,婦女們只好把所有的希望,都寄托在孩子身上,有了希望才有生活下去的勇氣。所以,七夕這一相思傳情的節日又演變成對保護孩子的“七娘媽”神的祈禱。

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